Mejora tu expresión con estos ejercicios de condicionales en inglés para valientes

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En este blog ya hemos hablado en varias ocasiones de las condicionales. Consisten en dos clauses, una en la cual se presenta la condición o hipótesis y otra en la que se explica la consecuencia, lo que pasaría de ser cierta la hipótesis. En este post os traemos algunos ejercicios de condicionales en inglés para que podáis practicar y mejorar vuestra expresión de situaciones hipotéticas.

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Antes de empezar con los ejercicios hagamos un repaso rápido. Recordemos que la oración en la que aparece la condición está subordinada a la otra y en inglés suele ir precedida de if, aunque no siempre es así. Estas oraciones tienen la particularidad de que pueden alternar su orden, es decir, que cualquiera de las dos puede aparecer en primer lugar, aunque la puntuación cambia. Observa estos ejemplos:

  • You won’t be late if you leave now. — No llegas tarde si sales ahora.
  • If you leave now, you won’t be late. — Si sales ahora, no llegas tarde.

Recordemos también que existen varios tipos de condicionales, que dependen principalmente del grado de probabilidad de que se cumpla la condición.

Zero Conditional

Se usa para condiciones que son siempre verdaderas (verdades universales usando lenguaje científico), pero también se utilizan para hablar de cosas que ocurren siempre del mismo modo, o incluso para creencias y convicciones. Se suele usar el tiempo presente en ambas clauses, aunque en los ejercicios veremos que no siempre es así.

  • If you don’t drink water, you get thirsty. — Si no bebes agua, tienes sed.

Completa conjugando los verbos entre paréntesis:

1.    Plants die if they ________ (not/ get) enough water.

2.    If someone enters the building, the alarm ________ (go) off.

3.    If we ________(be) late for school, our teacher gets angry.

4.    If you ________ (not / eat) enough, you get hungry.

5.    If you don’t have a job, you ________(feel) useless.

6.    The sun burns your skin if it ________(be) very hot.

First Conditional

Se utiliza para hacer predicciones que probablemente se cumplan, ya que la condición fácilmente se materializa. Normalmente se usa el present simple en la if/unless clause y el futuro simple para el resultado.

  • If you pass these tests, we will contact you again for an interview. — Si pasas estas pruebas, te llamaremos de nuevo para hacerte una entrevista.

Completa conjugando los verbos entre paréntesis:

1. If you ________________________ (not/behave), you ________________________ (get) a bad mark.

2. If she ________________________ (wear) a raincoat, she ________________________ (not/get) wet.

3. I _______________________ (not /talk) to you if you _____________________ (not/ keep) my secret.

4. If he ________________________ (leave) now, I ______________________ (never/ talk) to him again.

5. If your students ________________ (work) hard, their results ___________________ (be) a lot better.

6. If you ________________________ (wait) a minute, she ____________________ (be) here with Jack.

Second Conditional

Habla de sucesos improbables en el futuro de casos hipotéticos. Se usa el simple past para la hipótesis y would + infinitivo para el resultado.

  • If I wanted to go out tonight, I would let you know. — Si quisiera salir hoy, te lo diría.

Completa conjugando los verbos entre paréntesis:

1.      If I were you, I _____________________________________ (not wear) those old jeans.

2.      Terence _____________________________________ (win) the championship if he trained harder.

3.      If he _____________________________________ (be) taller, he could be a basketball player.

4.     If everybody _____________________________________ (protest), they would stop killing whales.

5.     The countryside _____________________________________ (be) more beautiful if people didn’t set fire to the forests every year.

6.     If you _____________________ (stop) smoking, you ___  __________________ (feel) much better.

7.     If the temperature ____________ (drop) a bit more, it ____________ (snow), but I don’t think it will.

8.     I ________________ (read) the book if it ___________________ (be) interesting, but it’s so boring.

9.     If my boyfriend ______________ (treat) me like that, I ____________________ (break up) with him.

Third Conditional

Este condicional nos sirve para situaciones hipotéticas pasadas en las que las condiciones se dieron de forma diferente a la realidad. Se forma con el verbo de la hipótesis en past perfect y el resultado con would have + participle.

  • If I had made up my mind sooner, I could have bought tickets for the concert. — Si me hubiese decidido antes, podría haber comprado entradas para el concierto.

Completa conjugando los verbos entre paréntesis:

1.      If she _____________________ (arrive) on time, she wouldn’t have missed the English lesson.

2.      If you __________________________ (be) more careful, you might not have broken your glasses.

3.      If he hadn´t watched TV until midnight, he ____________________________ (not be) late for work.

4.      You ____________________________ (not get) the job if you hadn´t applied for it.

5.      If I had invited you to my wedding party, ______________________________ (you/go)?

6.      She __________________________ (have) better grades in her exams if she had worked harder.

Mixed conditional

Este condicional es un poco más complejo. Normalmente consiste en una mezcla del segundo y tercer condicional, aunque puede darse otra combinación verbal. En el mixed conditional, sólo una de las dos clauses se refiere al pasado.

  • If you had done your job properly, we wouldn’t have to fix it now. — Si hubieses hecho bien tu trabajo, no tendríamos que arreglarlo ahora.

Cambia estas oraciones a condicional:

1. I’m hungry now because I didn’t eat dinner. But… if I’d eaten dinner, I wouldn’t be hungry now.

2. The room is full of flies because you left the door open. But…

3. You are tired this morning because you didn’t go to bed at a reasonable hour last night. But…

4. I didn’t finish my report yesterday, so I can’t begin a new project today. But…

5. Helen is sick because she didn’t follow the doctor’s orders. But…

6. I’m not you, so I couldn’t tell him the truth. But…

7. I don’t know anything about plumbing, so I didn’t fix the leak in the sink myself. But…

8. I received a good job offer from the oil company, so I won’t seriously consider taking the job with the electronics firm. But…

Condicionales sin if

Es posible crear hipótesis, y por tanto, oraciones condicionales sin necesidad de usar if cuando se usan los verbos were, had (past perfect), y should. El truco está en cambiar el verbo de lugar y, de hecho, es bastante habitual ver este tipo de condicionales.

  • Had I known, I would have told you. — Si lo hubiera sabido, te lo habría dicho.

  • Should anyone call, please take a message. — Si llamase alguien, pídales que dejen un mensaje.

Cambia estas condicionales eliminado if:

1. Artists and creative thinkers throughout history have changed our lives. If they had not dared to be different, the history of civilization would have to be rewritten.

2. If there should be a global nuclear war, some scientists predict that life on earth as we know it would end forever.

3. If Tom had told the truth about his education background, he probably wouldn’t have gotten the job with the accounting firm. I suspect his boss will figure it out and fire him one of these days.

4. I know you’re getting discouraged and are planning to drop out of school. However, if you were to finish your education, many more career opportunities would be open to you.

5. I’m glad I went to the meeting. If I hadn’t been there, my proposal probably would not have been accepted.

Soluciones

Zero conditional:

  1.    Plants die if they don’t get enough water.
  2.    If someone enters the building, the alarm goes off.
  3.    If we are late for school, our teacher gets angry.
  4.    If you don’t eat enough, you get hungry.
  5.    If you don’t have a job, you feel useless.
  6.    The sun burns your skin if it is very hot.

 

First conditional:

  1. If you don’t behave, you will get a bad mark.
  2. If she doesn’t wear a raincoat, she will get wet.
  3. I won’t talk to you if you don’t keep my secret.
  4. If he leaves now, I will never talk to him again.
  5. If your students work hard, their results will be a lot better.
  6. If you wait a minute, she will be here with Jack.

 

Second conditional:

  1. 1.      If I were you, I wouldn’t wear those old jeans.
  2.      Terence would win the championship if he trained harder.
  3.      If he were taller, he could be a basketball player.
  4.     If everybody protested, they would stop killing whales.
  5.     The countryside would be more beautiful if people didn’t set fire to the forests every year.
  6.     If you stopped smoking, you would feel much better.
  7.     If the temperature dropped a bit more, it would snow, but I don’t think it will.
  8.     I would read the book if it were interesting, but it’s so boring.
  9.     If my boyfriend treated me like that, I would break up with him.

 

Third conditional:

  1.      If she had arrived on time, she wouldn’t have missed the English lesson.
  2.      If you had been more careful, you might not have broken your glasses.
  3.      If he hadn´t watched TV until midnight, he would not have been late for work.
  4.      You wouldn’t have gotten the job if you hadn´t applied for it.
  5.      If I had invited you to my wedding party, would you have come?
  6.      She would have had better grades in her exams if she had worked harder.

 

Mixed conditional:

  1. If you hadn’t left the door open, the room wouldn’t be full of flies.
  2. If you had gone to bed at a reasonable hour last night you wouldn’t be tired this morning.
  3. If I had finished my report yesterday, I would be able to begin a new project today.
  4. If she had followed the doctor’s orders, she wouldn’t be sick.
  5. If I were you I would’ve told him the truth.
  6. If I knew some plumbing I would’ve fixed the leak in the sink myself.
  7. If I hadn’t received a good job offer from the oil company, I would’ve seriously considered taking the job with the electronics firm.

 

Condicionales sin if

  1. Artists and creative thinkers throughout history have changed our lives. Had they not dared to be different, the history of civilization would have to be rewritten.
  2. Should there be a global nuclear war, some scientists predict that life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  3. Had Tom told the truth about his education background, he probably wouldn’t have got the job with the accounting firm. I suspect his boss will figure it out and fire him one of these days.
  4. I know you’re getting discouraged and are planning to drop out of school. However, were you to finish your education, many more career opportunities would be open to you.
  5. I’m glad I went to the meeting. Had I not been there, my proposal probably would not have been accepted.

 

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